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Table 1 Characteristics of women in the national maternity survey by mode of delivery

From: Mode of birth and women’s psychological and physical wellbeing in the postnatal period

  Non-operative births Operative births  
  Unassisted Vaginala Ventouse-assisteda Forceps-assisteda Unplanned Caesareana Planned Caesareana p
n = 3275 n = 302 n = 359 n = 675 n = 630  
n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)  
DEMOGRAPHIC       
Mother’s age (years)       
  M (SD) 30.11 (5.75) 30.27 (5.26) 30.30 (5.49) 31.07 (5.55) 32.88 (5.31) <0.001
Parity       
  Primiparous 1342 (42) 246 (83) 299 (83) 492 (75) 193 (32) <0.001
  Multiparous 1880 (58) 51 (17) 51 (15) 164 (25) 420 (69)  
Ethnicity       
  White 2780 (86) 279 (93) 322 (90) 534 (81) 521 (84) <0.001
  Otherb 445 (14) 20 (7) 34 (10) 129 (20) 96 (16)  
Age left full-time education (years)       
  ≤ 16 751 (23) 51 (17) 63 (18) 115 (17) 151 (25) <0.001
  17-18 892 (28) 60 (20) 98 (28) 173 (26) 155 (25)  
  ≥ 19 1583 (49) 189 (63) 195 (55) 377 (57) 309 (50)  
IMD (quintiles)       
  1st (least deprived) 640 (20) 68 (23) 75 (21) 122 (18) 141 (18) 0.002
  2nd 652 (20) 63 (21) 71 (20) 110 (16) 137 (22)  
  3rd 681 (21) 59 (20) 74 (21) 152 (23) 151 (24)  
  4th 629 (19) 68 (23) 62 (17) 152 (23) 85 (14)  
  5th (most deprived) 672 (21) 44 (15) 77 (21) 139 (21) 116 (18)  
Marital status       
  Married 195 (59) 195 (65) 225 (63) 423 (63) 439 (70) <0.001
  Cohabiting 998 (31) 84 (28) 107 (30) 184 (27) 153 (24)  
  Other 330 (10) 23 (8) 27 (8) 68 (10) 38 (6)  
Country of birth       
  UK 2498 (80) 238 (81) 286 (83) 482 (75) 456 (77) 0.005
  Other 633 (20) 55 (19) 59 (17) 165 (26) 137 (23)  
OBSTETRIC       
Monitoring of baby in labour       
  Noc 269 (8) 2 (0.7) 4 (1) 88 (13) 33 (27) <0.001
  Stethoscope/sonicaid 845 (26) 23 (8) 23 (6) 23 (4) 3 (2)  
  Intermittent 674 (21) 51 (17) 64 (18) 95 (14) 25 (20)  
  Constant 1344 (41) 221 (73) 255 (71) 444 (67) 56 (45)  
  Other 11 (0.3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 2 (0.3) 1 (0.8)  
  Don’t know 128 (4) 5 (2) 13 (4) 11 (1.7) 6 (5)  
Duration of labour (hours)       
  ≤ 7 1825 (59) 64 (22) 60 (17) ------ ------ <0.001
  8-11 448 (15) 58 (20) 58 (16)    
  12-17 356 (12) 67 (23) 71 (20)    
  ≥18 468 (15) 109 (37) 165 (47)    
  1. * p <0.05 ** p < 0.01 *** p < 0.001.
  2. aNumbers may not sum to total because some data missing.
  3. bIncludes Mixed, Asian or Asian British, Black or Black British, Chinese and other.
  4. cExcludes women who had a planned caesarean and did not labour.