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Table 4 Characteristic of the included studies

From: A systematic review of the relationship between severe maternal morbidity and post-traumatic stress disorder

Authors Country Design Site Size (follow-up) Resp. Rate % Time of recruit-ment Criteria Maternal morbidity type (Data source) PTSD
        Inclusion Exclusion    Time postnatal Tool Admini-stration
Adewuya et al. 2006 Nigeria Cross-sectional Multi. clinic. (n=5) 876 95 a Postnatal Women attending 6 week postnatal & infant immunisation clinic None Hospital admission in pregnancy Manual removal of placenta Self-report 6 wks M.I.N.I. Interview
Ayers 1999 (PhD thesis) UK Pros. cohort Single hospital 245 (201) 70 -83 c (46–56 a) Antenatal Gestational age 16≤, ≤ 36 wks at recruitment Good English ElCS Poor English Other research participation Moving out No fixed address Psychiatric inpatient Blood loss Delivery complication Clinical records 1 week 6 weeks 6 mths IES PSS-SR Postal
Baecke et al. 2009 Netherlands Retro. cohort Single hospital 169 48-76 b or c Postnatal Pregnancy complicated by preeclampsia and control groups Multiple pregnancy Pre-term preeclampsia Term preeclampsia Clinical records 6 -18 mths IES Postal
Cohen et al. 2004 Canada Pros. cohort Multi. hospital (n=6) 198 60-87 b or c Postnatal Age≥18 Understand English Delivered a full-term Singleton infant Poor English Child for adoption Risk of baby (multiple infant, premature, congenanomaly, NICU, death) maternal complications (PPH, uterine infection UTI, or retained placenta etc.) Not clear 6-8 wks DTS Interview (telephone)
Creedy 1999 (PhD thesis) Australia Pros. cohort Multi. hospital (n=4) 499 (141) 73 b Antenatal Age≥18 3rd trimester pregnancy Understand English No major prenatal complication No medical problems healthy full-term infant Risk of baby (premature, stillbirth) Pregnancy with high risk for birth complications Delivery complication (PPH, anaemia, infection, severe post-delivery pain or manual removal of placenta etc) Self-report 4-6 wks 3–4 mths IES PSS- Interview (telephone)
Engelhard et al. 2002 Netherlands Retro. cohort Single hospital 113 51-90 b Postnatal Pregnancy complicated by preeclampsia and control groups Primiparas Age<18, Illiterate in Dutch Intrauterine fetal death Pre-term preeclampsia Term preeclampsia Clinical records ≤ 2 yrs PSS-SR Postal
Hoedjes et al., 2001 Netherlands Pros. cohort Multi. hospital (n=4) 128 (137) 50-54 a or b Postnatal Age≥18 Pregnancy complicated by preeclampsia speaking Dutch -- Mild preeclampsia: Severe preeclampsia Clinical records 6 wks 12 wks SRIP Postal
Lev-Wiesel et al. 2009 Israel Pros. cohort Single hospital 1071 96 c or d Antenatal Women >= 5 mths pregnant at the time of recruitment Women under psychiatric treatment High-risk pregnancy Delivery complications (CS, preterm delivery or fetal distress etc) Clinical records Self-report 1 mth 6 mths PSS-I Interview (face-to-face/ telephone)
Sorenson & Tschetter 2010 US Cross-sectional Commu-nity 71 75 c (53 b) Postnatal Listed in phone book Having 'landline' phone numbers All others who did not meet inclusion criteria Birth complication: Not stated 6-7 mths PTCS Interview (telephone)
Stramrood et al. 2010 Netherlands Pros. cohort Single hospital & single midwifery practice 175 (137) 71-91c Antenatal Women hospitalised with preeclampsia or PPROM Critically ill, multiple pregnancy, A history of intrauterine fetal death, Alcohol/drug dependence Pre-existing medical conditions (eg. diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular, renal diseases) Preeclampsia PPROM Clinical records 6 wks 15 mths PSS-SR Interview
Stramrood et al. 2011 Netherlands Cross-sectional Multi. Hospital (n=3) Midwifery practice (n=4) 428 47 a or b Postnatal Women delivered 2 to 6 months prior to study with >=16 weeks of gestation -- Pregnancy complications (pre-eclampsia, HELLP, antenatal blood loss or intrauterine death etc) Delivery complications (PPH, manual placenta removal or ICU etc) Self-report 2-6 mths TES-B Web-based
  1. NoteCS: caesarean section; ElCS: elective caesarean section; ICU: intensive care units; NICU: neonatal intensive care units; PPROM: preterm premature rupture of membranes; HELLP: HELLP syndrome.
  2. PPH: postpartum haemorrhage.
  3. Pros: prospective; Retro: retrospective; wks: weeks; mths: months; yrs: years.
  4. ‡ Engelhard (2002) included women’s partner in their study sample, but data on women was only extracted.
  5. † Sample size of postnatal women and response rate at postnatal period.
  6. a) The number of all eligible women, of whom those who took part in the study.
  7. b) The number of women who were approached, of whom questionnaire/interview were actually returned or completed.
  8. c) The number of women who agreed to participate after the researcher approached to them, of whom questionnaires/interview were actually returned or completed.
  9. d) Uncertain how the response rate was calculated.