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Table 1 Women’ characteristics, by time period, n (%) (Senegal and Mali, October 2007-October 2008)

From: Individual and institutional determinants of caesarean section in referral hospitals in Senegal and Mali: a cross-sectional epidemiological survey

  Period 1
(n=45 261)
Period 2
(n=41 244)
All women
(n=86 505)
Age ≥35 years 6 633 (15) 5 704 (14) 12 337 (14)
Nulliparous 16 319 (36) 13 769 (33) 30 088 (35)
Previous caesarean section 3 119 (7) 3 082 (7) 6 201 (7)
Current pregnancy    
Multiple pregnancy 1 640 (4) 1 759 (4) 3 399 (4)
Hypertensive disorders* 3 197 (7) 2 874 (7) 6 071 (7)
Vaginal bleeding (near full term) 1 497 (3) 1 616 (4) 3 113 (4)
Suspected cephalopelvic-disproportion** 99 (0.2) 114 (0.3) 213 (0.2)
Suspected intrauterine death 844 (2) 696 (2) 1 540 (2)
Premature rupture of the membranes 1 805 (4) 1 278 (3) 3 083 (4)
Referral from another hospital 11 021 (24) 10 579 (26) 21 600 (25)
Labour    
Premature labour 620 (1) 625 (1) 1 245 (1)
Oxytocin use 1 321 (3) 1 180 (3) 2 501 (3)
Mode of delivery    
Vaginal delivery    
Spontaneous 35 756 (79) 31 857 (77) 67 613 (79)
Operative 920 (2) 914 (2) 1 834 (2)
Caesarean section £    
Emergency 1 438 (3) 1 233 (3) 2 671 (3)
Intrapartum 6 044 (13) 6 382 (16) 12 446 (14)
Elective 1 083 (3) 858 (2) 1 941 (2)
  1. *Chronic hypertension, gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia or HELLP syndrome. **Suspected cephalopelvic-disproportion reported as “excessive fundal-height” or “pathologic pelvis”. £CS accounted for 19.8% (95% CI: 19.4–20.0) of all deliveries, with a higher rate in Senegal (20.9%, 95% CI: 20.5–21.3) than in Mali (18.5%, 95% CI: 18.1–18.8). The majority of CS involved intrapartum delivery (73%), whereas emergency and elective CS represented 16% and 11%, respectively.