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Table 1 Risk and protective factors for major postpartum haemorrhage (≥1000mls) for term nulliparous women – all deliveries

From: Maternal obesity and postpartum haemorrhage after vaginal and caesarean delivery among nulliparous women at term: a retrospective cohort study

 

No PPH

PPH

  

n= 10351 (91.1%)

n= 1012 (8.9%)

Unadjusted OR’s

Adjusted OR’s*

Maternal characteristic

    

 BMI

    

   18.5-24.9

6714 (64.9)

524 (51.8)

1.00

1.00

   25.0-29.9

2376 (22.9)

255 (25.2)

1.38 (1.18-1.61)

1.20 (1.01-1.42)

   ≥ 30.0

1261 (12.2)

233 (23.0)

2.37 (2.01-2.79)

1.86 (1.51-2.28)

 Age (y)

    

   Less than 20

551 (5.3)

38 (3.8)

0.70 (0.49-0.98)

0.77 (0.53-1.12)

   20-29

4078 (39.4)

405 (40.0)

1.00

1.00

   30-34

3553 (34.3)

336 (33.2)

0.95 (0.82-1.11)

0.94 (0.79-1.11)

   ≥ 35

2169 (21.0)

233 (23.0)

1.08 (0.91-1.28)

0.93 (0.77-1.14)

 Ethnicity

    

   European

5573 (53.9)

491 (48.5)

1.00

1.00

   Maori

765 (7.4)

78 (7.7)

1.16 (0.90-1.49)

1.27 (0.95-1.69)

   Pacific island

881 (8.5)

136 (13.5)

1.75 (1.43-2.15)

1.60 (1.25-2.06)

   Asian

2052 (19.8)

227 (22.4)

1.26 (1.06-1.48)

1.61 (1.34-1.94)

   Indian

766 (7.4)

64 (6.3)

0.95 (0.72-1.24)

1.20 (0.89-1.61)

   Other

314 (3.0)

16 (1.6)

0.58 (0.35-0.96)

0.68 (0.40-1.15)

 Smoking (at booking)

    

   No

9086 (87.8)

908 (89.7)

1.00

1.00

   Yes

778 (7.5)

69 (6.8)

0.89 (0.69-1.15)

0.86 (0.65-1.14)

   Unknown

487 (4.7)

35 (3.5)

0.72 (0.51-1.02)

0.67 (0.47-0.97)

 Maternity care

    

   Private

2556 (24.7)

231 (22.8)

1.00

1.00

   Public

7795 (75.3)

781 (77.2)

1.11 (0.95-1.29)

0.83 (0.69-0.99)

Pregnancy complications

    

 Antepartum haemorrhage

    

   No

9899 (95.6)

924 (91.3)

1.00

1.00

   Yes‡

378 (3.7)

60 (5.9)

1.70 (1.28-2.25)

1.76 (1.31-2.36)

   Placenta praevia

74 (0.7)

28 (2.8)

4.06 (2.61-6.30)

4.00 (2.48-6.47)

 Diabetes

    

   Nil

7651 (73.9)

733 (72.4)

1.00

1.00

   Type 1 or Type 2

64 (0.6)

8 (0.8)

1.31 (0.62-2.73)

0.82 (0.38-1.80)

   Gestational

463 (4.5)

52 (5.2)

1.17 (0.87-1.58)

0.92 (0.66-1.29)

   Unknown

2173 (21.0)

219 (21.6)

1.05 (0.90-1.23)

1.06 (0.90-1.26)

 Hypertension

    

   Nil

9332 (90.2)

878 (86.8)

1.00

1.00

   Chronic

143 (1.4)

26 (2.6)

1.93 (1.27-2.95)

1.78 (1.13-2.80)

   Gestational

523 (5.0)

56 (5.5)

1.14 (0.86-1.51)

0.98 (0.72-1.33)

   Preeclampsia

353 (3.4)

52 (5.1)

1.57 (1.16-2.11)

1.33 (0.95-1.85)

 Induction of labour

3187 (30.8)

397 (39.2)

1.45 (1.27-1.66)

1.20 (1.03-1.40)

Delivery outcomes

    

 Mode of delivery

    

   Vaginal

    

   Spontaneous

5010 (48.4)

245 (24.2)

1.00

1.00

   Ventouse

1561 (15.1)

102 (10.1)

1.34 (1.05-1.70)

1.40 (1.09-1.79)

   Forceps

711 (6.9)

70 (6.9)

2.01 (1.53-2.66)

1.98 (1.49-2.65)

   Caesarean

    

   Prelabour

1165 (11.2)

153 (15.1)

2.69 (2.17-3.32)

2.99 (2.33-3.83)

   Emergency in labour

1904 (18.4)

442 (43.7)

4.75 (4.03-5.60)

4.47 (3.74-5.35)

 Retained placenta

109 (1.1)

38 (3.8)

3.67 (2.52-5.33)

6.60 (4.42-9.85)

Neonatal outcomes

    

 Gestation at delivery (days)

278.7 ± 8.6

279.8 ± 8.6

1.11 (1.05-1.17) per ↑1wk

0.96 (0.90-1.03) per ↑1wk

 Birthweight (g)

3416 ± 462

3621 ± 511

1.58 (1.47-1.69) per ↑500g

1.49 (1.38-1.62) per ↑500g

 Small for gestational age

1205 (11.6)

84 (8.3)

0.69 (0.55-0.87)

§

 Large for gestational age

848 (8.2)

178 (17.6)

2.39 (2.01-2.85)

§

  1. Data are n (%) or mean ± standard deviation.
  2. Significant adjusted OR’s are bolded.
  3. * Adjusted for all variables in table.
  4. Body Mass Index.
  5. from any cause excluding placenta praevia >20wk gestation.
  6. § SGA/LGA not included in multivariable model.