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Table 1 Maternal and family characteristics of infants by maternal nativity: Taiwan Birth Cohort Study, 2005

From: Adverse birth outcomes among native-born and foreign-born mothers in Taiwan: A population-based birth cohort study

Characteristic Taiwan n = 17441 China n = 917 Southeast Asia n = 1732 p
  n % n % n %  
Infant sex 0.99
  Boy 9180 52.6 485 52.9 910 52.5  
  Girl 8261 47.4 432 47.1 822 47.5  
Maternal ageabc <0.0001d
  <20 y 225 1.3 0 0.0 121 7.0  
  20–34 y 14846 85.1 834 91.0 1539 90.0  
  35 y 2370 13.6 83 9.1 52 3.0  
First bornbc 8620 49.4 482 52.6 993 57.3 <0.0001d
Singletonbc 16954 97.2 895 97.6 1710 98.7 0.0007d
Family monthly incomeabc
  <NT$30,000 1351 7.8 225 24.5 611 35.3 <0.0001d
  NT$30,000–69,999 9653 55.4 621 67.7 1072 61.9  
  NT$70,000+ 6437 36.9 71 7.7 49 2.8  
Paternal educationabc        <0.0001d
  0–9 y 1666 9.6 247 26.9 733 42.3  
  10–12 y 6797 39.0 418 45.6 829 47.9  
  13+ y 8978 51.5 252 27.5 170 9.8  
Maternal educationabc <0.0001d
  0–9 y 1161 6.7 479 52.2 1214 70.1  
  10–12 y 7194 41.3 338 36.9 430 24.8  
  13+ y 9086 52.1 100 10.9 88 5.1  
Place of residencebc <0.0001d
  Urban 10319 59.2 526 57.4 770 44.5  
  Rural 7122 40.8 391 42.6 962 55.5  
Length of stay in Taiwan, y   -   3.3   3.5  
Smoking during pregnancyabc 586 3.4 5 0.6 0 0.0 <0.0001d
Pregnancy complications        
  Diabetesbc 430 2.5 15 1.6 8 0.5 <0.0001d
  Hypertensionac 380 2.2 8 0.9 11 0.6 <0.0001d
  Pre-eclampsiabc 141 0.8 4 0.4 1 0.1 0.0012d
  Placenta previaac 337 1.9 7 0.8 5 0.3 <0.0001d
  Placental abruptionbc 79 0.5 4 0.4 0 0.0 0.02
First-time prenatal careac <0.0001d
  <3 m 12693 72.8 601 65.5 1143 66.0  
  3 m 3922 22.5 210 22.9 405 23.4  
  4+ m 826 4.7 106 11.6 184 10.6  
Number of prenatal visitsac <0.0001d
  <10 2586 14.8 203 22.1 415 24.0  
  10 4333 24.8 230 25.1 456 26.3  
  11+ 10522 60.3 484 52.8 861 49.7  
  1. 1 US dollar equaled 32.167 New Taiwan dollars in 2005 [21].
  2. aSignificant difference at 0.05 level between Taiwan-born and China-born mothers.
  3. bSignificant difference at 0.05 level between China-born and Southeast Asia-born mothers.
  4. cSignificant difference at 0.05 level between Taiwan-born and Southeast Asia-born mothers.
  5. dSignificant after Bonferroni correction. By Bonferroni correction test, a p value of < 0.0167 was regarded as significant.