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Table 2 Pooled estimate effect of dietary intervention during pregnancy on different outcomes

From: Systematic review of clinical trials on dietary interventions to prevent excessive weight gain during pregnancy among normal weight, overweight and obese women

Outcomes Studies Comparison
groups
Participants Statistical method Effect size (95% CI) I2
Total GWG       
   all data 10 11 1434 WMD (Random) -1.92 kg (-3.65/- 0.19) 89%
   excluding Thornton and Wolff 8 9 1152 WMD (Fixed) -1.01 kg (-1.58/-0.45) 43%
Weekly GWG 2 2 253 WMD (Random) -0.26 kg/wk (-0.42/-0.09) 82%
GW above IOM guidelines 4 4 629 RR (Fixed) 0.90 (0.77/1.05) 0%
Weight retention       
   6 wks postpartum 2 2 306 WMD (Fixed) 0.58 (0.13/1.03) 12%
   6 mths postpatum 3 3 443 WMD (Random) -1.90 (-2.69/-1.12) 63%
Preeclampsia 6 6 1025 WMD (Fixed) 0.78 (0.58/1.06) 0%
Gestational diabetes 6 6 886 WMD (Fixed) 0.74 (0.52/1.06) 31%
Cesarean section       
   all data 6 6 841 RR (Random) 0.82 (0.60/1.09) 61%
   excluding Thornton 5 5 609 RR (Fixed) 0.75 (0.60/0.94) 0%
Mean birth weight       
   all data 7 8 1048 WMD (Random) -34.8 g (-162.6/93.0) 77%
   excluding Badrawi 6 7 949 WMD (Fixed) 34.5 g (-27.4/93.5) 0%
Low birth weight 2 2 531 RR (Fixed) 1.30 (0.8/2.10) 0%
Macrosomia 6 6 1023 RR (Fixed) 0.94 (0.62/1.35) 33%
Mean gestational age 7 8 1167 WMD (Fixed) 0.22 (0.01/0.42) 0%
Preterm birth 4 4 873 RR (Fixed) 0.83 (0.51/1.34) 0%
  1. CI - confidence interval, GWG - gestational weight gain, IOM - Institute of Preventive Medicine, wks - weeks, mths - months WMD - weighted mean difference, RR - relative risk