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Table 4 Association between maternal systemic/localized comorbidity and preterm birth according to clinical subtype and gestational age*

From: Association between maternal comorbidity and preterm birth by severity and clinical subtype: retrospective cohort study

  Medically indicated    PPROM    Spontaneous
  < 28 wk 28-31 wk 32-36 wk    < 28 wk 28-31 wk 32-36 wk    < 28 wk 28-31 wk 32-36 wk
Systemic comorbidity          
   Hypertension          
Preeclampsia/eclampsia 17.6 (15.4-20.1) 38.7 (35.6-42.1) 18.5 (17.8-19.1)    0.2 (0.1-0.5) 0.6 (0.4-0.9) 0.9 (0.8-1.0)    0.3 (0.2-0.5) 0.7 (0.5-1.1) 1.1 (1.0-1.2)
Pre-existing 3.4 (2.1-5.4) 6.7 (5.1-8.8) 5.1 (4.6-5.6)    1.3 (0.7-2.3) 1.2 (0.7-2.0) 1.1 (0.9-1.3)    1.0 (0.5-1.7) 0.9 (0.5-1.9) 0.9 (0.8-1.1)
Gestational 1.1 (0.5-2.0) 2.1 (1.4-3.1) 2.8 (2.5-3.1)    0.1 (0.0-0.6) 0.5 (0.2-0.9) 0.6 (0.5-0.7)    0.2 (0.1-0.6) 0.1 (0.0-0.5) 0.6 (0.5-0.7)
   Cardiovascular disease 2.2 (1.2-4.3) 3.4 (2.3-4.9) 3.0 (2.6-3.4)    1.6 (0.8-3.4) 2.4 (1.5-4.0) 1.3 (1.0-1.6)    1.6 (0.8-2.9) 2.0 (1.1-3.7) 1.1 (0.9-1.3)
   Diabetes          
Pre-existing 1.2 (0.8-1.9) 3.2 (2.6-3.9) 3.9 (3.6-4.2)    1.2 (0.8-1.8) 3.5 (2.8-4.4) 2.0 (1.9-2.2)    0.9 (0.6-1.4) 2.2 (1.7-3.1) 1.4 (1.3-1.6)
Gestational 0.6 (0.4-0.8) 1.2 (1.0-1.4) 1.7 (1.6-1.8)    0.5 (0.3-0.7) 1.3 (1.0-1.6) 1.5 (1.4-1.6)    0.3 (0.2-0.4) 0.8 (0.6-1.1) 1.3 (1.3-1.4)
   Edema/renal disease 6.8 (4.4-10.3) 11.9 (9.4-14.9) 7.3 (6.6-8.1)    1.4 (0.6-3.3) 1.7 (0.9-3.3) 1.1 (0.8-1.4)    1.8 (1.0-3.4) 0.9 (0.3-2.4) 1.1 (0.9-1.4)
   Genitourinary infection 1.7 (1.3-2.3) 2.6 (2.2-3.1) 1.8 (1.7-1.9)    2.1 (1.6-2.7) 2.6 (2.1-3.1) 1.2 (1.1-1.3)    1.3 (1.0-1.7) 1.0 (0.7-1.4) 1.0 (0.9-1.1)
   General infection 2.5 (1.8-3.5) 2.2 (1.7-2.8) 2.2 (2.0-2.4)    3.0 (2.3-4.0) 2.8 (2.2-3.6) 1.4 (1.2-1.5)    1.7 (1.3-2.4) 2.1 (1.5-2.9) 1.3 (1.2-1.4)
   Thyroid disease 2.3 (1.6-3.4) 2.1 (1.6-2.8) 1.9 (1.7-2.1)    1.9 (1.3-2.9) 1.9 (1.3-2.6) 1.3 (1.2-1.5)    1.1 (0.7-1.7) 1.6 (1.0-2.5) 1.1 (1.0-1.2)
   Anemia 2.2 (1.9-2.6) 2.7 (2.4-2.9) 1.6 (1.5-1.7)    2.1 (1.8-2.4) 1.7 (1.5-1.9) 0.9 (0.9-0.9)    1.3 (1.2-1.5) 1.0 (0.8-1.2) 0.7 (0.7-0.8)
   Drug dependence 1.8 (0.8-4.4) 5.1 (3.5-7.5) 3.3 (2.8-3.9)    5.9 (3.7-9.3) 4.9 (3.2-7.4) 3.3 (2.8-3.9)    3.9 (2.4-6.2) 6.1 (4.0-9.2) 4.1 (3.6-4.6)
   Mental disorders 3.6 (2.5-5.3) 2.6 (1.9-3.6) 2.4 (2.1-2.7)    3.3 (2.2-4.8) 4.1 (3.0-5.5) 1.9 (1.7-2.2)    2.7 (1.9-3.8) 2.6 (1.7-3.9) 1.8 (1.6-2.0)
Localized comorbidity          
   Hemorrhage          
Placental abruption 27.7 (24.2-31.8) 25.2 (22.9-27.9) 10.7 (10.2-11.3)    24.7 (21.6-28.2) 19.7 (17.5-22.2) 3.0 (2.8-3.2)    30.4 (27.4-33.7) 28.4 (25.3-31.8) 5.1 (4.9-5.4)
Placenta previa 17.7 (12.9-24.2) 30.4 (25.6-36.1) 29.8 (27.9-31.8)    16.8 (12.5-22.7) 6.6 (4.5-9.6) 2.1 (1.8-2.5)    3.4 (2.0-5.9) 3.0 (1.5-5.7) 0.8 (0.6-1.0)
   Chorioamnionitis 3.8 (3.3-4.5) 1.5 (1.3-1.8) 0.9 (0.9-1.0)    24.0 (21.5-26.8) 12.4 (11.2-13.6) 2.0 (1.9-2.1)    9.6 (8.7-10.6) 4.5 (3.9-5.2) 1.0 (1.0-1.1)
   Amniotic sac          
Polyhydramnios 3.1 (2.0-4.7) 5.1 (4.0-6.5) 3.6 (3.3-4.0)    1.7 (1.0-3.0) 2.4 (1.6-3.5) 1.3 (1.1-1.5)    2.1 (1.4-3.1) 4.1 (3.0-5.6) 1.6 (1.5-1.8)
Oligohydramnios 10.2 (8.4-12.4) 13.0 (11.5-14.8) 8.6 (8.1-9.1)    15.1 (12.8-17.8) 12.6 (10.9-14.6) 2.2 (2.0-2.4)    2.6 (2.0-3.5) 1.7 (1.1-2.5) 0.8 (0.7-0.9)
   Cervical incompetence 68.6 (54.6-86.1) 13.6 (9.8-18.9) 7.1 (6.1-8.4)    123 (103-146) 33.4 (26.1-42.7) 6.1 (5.1-7.2)    159 (139-183) 32.4 (24.5-42.9) 6.9 (5.9-7.9)
   Structural abnormality 6.8 (5.5-8.3) 6.3 (5.4-7.3) 3.5 (3.2-3.7)    4.2 (3.3-5.2) 4.2 (3.4-5.1) 2.0 (1.9-2.2)    2.5 (2.0-3.2) 2.2 (1.6-2.9) 0.8 (0.7-0.9)
   Previous cesarean delivery 1.2 (1.0-1.4) 1.3 (1.1-1.4) 2.0 (2.0-2.1)    1.1 (0.9-1.3) 0.9 (0.7-1.0) 0.8 (0.7-0.8)    0.4 (0.3-0.5) 0.5 (0.4-0.6) 0.4 (0.4-0.4)
   Fetal anomaly 159 (123-204) 16.3 (10.2-26.2) 12.4 (10.1-15.3)    3.2 (0.8-12.8) 7.0 (3.1-15.6) 2.3 (1.5-3.5)    142 (115-176) 8.7 (3.9-19.6) 4.1 (3.1-5.5)
  1. * Odds ratio (95% confidence interval) adjusted for maternal age, grand multiparity, and period (rounded to the first decimal to conserve space)
  2. † Preterm premature rupture of membranes
  3. ‡ Spontaneous preterm labour before 37 weeks of gestation with intact membranes