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Table 2 The packages of interventions and their impacts for maternal health in resource limited countries

From: Maternal health interventions in resource limited countries: a systematic review of packages, impacts and factors for change

Country Integrated
interventions
(from table 1)*
Time
Interval
(years)
Maternal
deaths/live births
Odds ratio
(95% CI)
    Intervention Control  
Randomized controlled trials     
Zimbabwe [26] 16 2 6/9,394 5/6,138 0.78 (0.24 - 2.57)
Zimbabwe [27] 16 3 2/6,483 4/6,696 0.52 (0.09 - 2.82)
Pakistan [28] 3,15 2 27/10,093 34/9,432 0.74 (0.45 - 1.23)
India [29] 1 3 49/9,388 60/8,819 0.77 (0.52 - 1.12)
Nepal [30] 4 3.5 59/14,948 51/7,241 0.56 (0.37 - 0.84)
Nepal [31] 1 3 2/2,899 11/3,226 0.20 (0.04 - 0.91)
Ghana [11] 4 29 × 103 § 138/39,601 148/39,234 0.92 (0.73 - 1.17)
Quasi-experimental designs with control groups   
Angola [32] 3,6 4 55/18,755 66/5,363 0.24 (0.16 - 0.34)
Gambia [33] 3, 6,9,15,16 3 1/769 5/714 0.43 (0.02 - 1.55)
Bangladesh [34] 3,6-9,15,16 3 6/4,424 20/5,206 0.35 (0.66 - 0.89)
Bangladeshф [35] 1, 3,6-9,13,16 4 41/10,890 50/13,169 0.99 (0.66 - 1.50)
Gambia [36] 3,8,9 7 11/405 to 13/1,236 4/267 to 7/727 0.36 (0.20 - 0.64)
Quasi-experimental designs without control groups After intervention Before
intervention
 
Egypt [1, 37] 1,6-9,11 7 585/696,428 772/443,678 0.48 (0.43 - 0.54)
Senegal [38] 5-8,15 3 27/6,622 50/6,017 0.49 (0.30 - 0.80)
Pakistan [39, 40] 3,9,11,13,15,16 5 34/52,982 48/55,454 0.74 (0.48 - 1.15)
Tanzania [41] 5,6,7,8 5 8/4,296 28/3,000 0.20 (0.09 - 0.44)
Peru [42] 1,6,7,9,15 4 2/3,119 9/3,002 0.21 (0.05 - 0.99)
Nigeria [43] 5,6,7,8 6 7/1208 47/2999 0.37 (0.17 - 0.81)
Nigeria [44, 45] 1,2,6,7,8 6 7/815 44/861 0.16 (0.07 - 0.36)
Nigeria [46, 47] 2,5-8,12 5 0/130 1/139 0.53 (0.02 - 16.02)
Bangladesh [48]† 1,3, 9,13,16 13 86/46,320 299/105 0.62
Cameroon [49]† 6,9 10 60/105 260/105 0.23
China [1]† 1,3,5-9,11 16 61/105 100/105 0.61
China [50]† 1,3,6,9,11 3 114/105 456/105 0.25
Honduras [51]† 1,3,6-9,14 7 108/105 182/105 0.59
Bolivia [1, 52]† 7-9,11 11 230/105 390/105 0.59
India [53]† 6-11 14 90/105 380/105 0.24
Nepal [54]† 1,2,5-8,11 10 281/105 539/105 0.52
  1. Note: *The numbers given to the interventions correspond to those given in table 1; § Follow up years (the interventions were started in 2000 - 2008 but at different times across the clusters); ф Interventions were implemented at various intervals and we analyzed results from the last 4 years when a complete package was implemented. † Odds ratio was calculated from MMR before and after intervention due to incomplete raw data in the review articles.