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Table 3 Perineal outcome in relation to randomization

From: No reduction in instrumental vaginal births and no increased risk for adverse perineal outcome in nulliparous women giving birth on a birth seat: results of a Swedish randomized controlled trial

  Experimental group Control group Risk Ratio p-value
    (95% CI)  
  n = 500 n = 502   
  n (%) n (%)   
Episiotomies 95/950 (10.0%)* 43 (9.0) 52 (11.0) 0.89 (0.71-1.13) 0. 301
Perineal lacerations (caesarean sections excluded)
1 degree 643/950 347 (69.4) 339 (67.5) 1.17 (0.85-1.62) 0. 304
2 degree 160/950 85 (17.0) 75 (14.9) 1.23 (0.87-1.74) 0. 214
3 degree 53/950 23 (4.6) 30 (6.0) 1.00 (0.65-1.56) 0. 978
No laceration 56/950 22 (4.6) 29 (6.1) 1.0 Ref.  
Oedema (caesarean sections excluded)
VAS 0-3 300 (82.1) 303 (85.8) 1.0 Ref.  
VAS 4-7 56 (15.4) 44 (12.5) 1.13 (0.93-1.36) 0. 247
VAS 8-10 9 (2.5) 6 (1.7) 1.21 (0.79-1.83) 0. 433
  1. * Reference = women without episiotomies