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Table 2 Descriptive overview of maternal characteristics in nulliparous women who have reported experienced violence before and/or during pregnancy compared to women not exposed to violence (n = 2652).

From: A multi-centre cohort study shows no association between experienced violence and labour dystocia in nulliparous women at term

Characteristics Total History of violence P
(2-sided)
Violence
before pregnancy
P
(2-sided)
Violence
during pregnancy
P
(2-sided)
  n (%) Not exposed
n (%)
Exposed
n (%)
  Not exposed
n (%)
Exposed
n (%)
  Not exposed
n (%)
Exposed
n (%)
 
Total 2652 (100.0) 1712 (64.7) 940 (35.4)   1738 (65.5) 914 (34.5)   2586 (97.5) 66 (2.5)  
Age, years           
18 - 24 440 (16.5) 233 (13.6) 207 (22.1) < 0.001 236 (13.6) 204 (22.4) < 0.001 420 (16.3) 20 (30.8) 0.02
25 - 29 1300 (49.0) 884 (51.6) 416 (44.4)   901 (51.8) 399 (43.8)   1274 (49.3) 26 (40.0)  
30 - 34 728 (27.5) 476 (27.8) 252 (26.9)   481 (27.7) 247 (27.1)   712 (27.6) 16 (24.6)  
> 34 180 (6.8) 119 (7.0) 61 (6.5)   120 (6.9) 60 (6.6)   177 (6.7) 3 (4.6)  
Missing 4 (0.2)          
Country of
origin
          
Denmark 2452 (92.5) 1577 (92.1) 875 (93.1) NS 1603 (92.2) 849 (92.9) NS 2390 (92.4) 62 (93.9) NS
Nordic countries 54 (2.0) 38 (2.2) 16 (1.7)   38 (2.2) 16 (1.8)   53 (2.0) 1 (1.5)  
Other countries 146 (5.5) 97 (5.7) 49 (5.2)   97 (5.6) 49 (5.4)   143 (5.5) 3 (4.5)  
Missing 0 (0.0)          
Cohabiting
status
          
Yes 2517 (94.9) 1645 (99.7) 872 (98.8) 0.004 1668 (99.7) 849 (98.7) 0.003 2461 (99.5) 56 (94.9) < 0.001
No 16 (0.6) 5 (0.3) 11 (1.2)   5 (0.3) 11 (1.3)   13 (0.5) 3 (5.1)  
Missing 119 (4.5)          
Education
status
          
> 10 years 2128 (80.3) 1436 (84.7) 692 (74.7) < 0.001 1457 (84.6) 671 (74.6) < 0.001 2083 (81.5) 45 (68.2) < 0.006
≤10 years 494 (18.6) 260 (15.3) 234 (25.3)   265 (15.4) 229 (25.4)   473 (18.5) 21 (31.8)  
Missing 30 (1.1)          
Employment
status
          
Employed 1849 (69.7) 1237 (74.1) 612 (66.8) < 0.001 1255 (74.0) 594 (66.7) < 0.001 1805 (71.6) 44 (68.8) NS
Unemployed 737 (27.8) 433 (25.9) 304 (33.2)   441 (26.0) 296 (33.3)   717 (28.4) 20 (31.2)  
Missing 66 (2.5)          
Smoking           
No 1995 (75.2) 1377 (80.9) 618 (65.9) < 0.001 1396 (80.8) 599 (65.7) < 0.001 1953 (75.9) 42 (63.6) 0.022
Yes 645 (24.3) 325 (19.1) 320 (34.1)   332 (19.2) 313 (34.3)   621 (24.1) 24 (36.4)  
Missing 12 (0.5)          
Use of alcohol           
No 1895 (71.5) 1240 (77.0) 655 (73.3) NS 1256 (76.7) 639 (73.6) NS 1851 (75.0) 44 (69.8) NS
Yes 637 (24.0) 398 (24.3) 239 (26.7)   408(24.5) 229 (26.4)   618 (25.0) 19 (30.2)  
Missing 120 (4.5)          
BMI           
Normal or low
(≤ 25)
1954 (73.7) 1261 (77.5) 693 (77.9) NS 1282 (77.6) 672 (77.8) NS 1902 (77.6) 52 (80.0) NS
Overweight
(> 25)
563 (21.2) 366 (22.5) 197 (22.1)   371 (22.4) 192 (22.2)   550 (22.4) 13 (20.0)  
Missing 135 (5.1)          
  1. Statistical significance is accepted at p < 0.05
  2. Same women can occur in more than one group