Skip to main content

Table 1 Maternal characteristics and unadjusted risk ratio (RR) for perinatal death among 895 pregnant women enrolled in the PROMISE-EBF study in Banfora Health District.

From: Perinatal mortality in rural Burkina Faso: a prospective community-based cohort study

Variables Number (%)
n = 895
Perinatal deaths
(N = 72)
Number of births
n = 915
PNMR
Per 1000 births
Unadjusted RR
[95% CI]
Area      
   - Banfora 440 (49.0) 41 451 90.9 1.36 [0.7-2.4]
   - Soubakénédougou 221 (25.0) 15 225 66.7 1
   - Sidéradougou 234 (26.0) 16 239 66.9 1.0 [0.5-2.0]
Maternal age      
   - <20 148 (16.5) 22 149 147.7 2.71 [1.0-6.9]
   - 20-35 656 (73.3) 45 674 66.8 1.22 [0.5-3.0]
   - >35 91 (10.2) 5 92 54.3 1
Parity      
   - 0 153 (17.0) 19 154 123.4 2.19 [1.2-3.9]
   - 1 146 (16.3) 15 150 100.0 1.78 [0.9-3.3]
   - 2-4 412 (46.0) 24 425 56.5 1
   - ≥5 184 (20.7) 14 186 75.3 1.33 [0.7-2.5]
Educational level      
- None 720 (80.4) 58 736 78.8 1.05 [0.4-2.8]
   - Literacy/primary school 120 (13.4) 10 124 80.6 1.08 [0.3-3.3]
   - Secondary school 55 (06.2) 4 55 72.7 1
Use of media (radio, TV)      
   - Everyday 166 (18.6) 9 169 53.3 1
   - Rare/None 729 (81.4) 63 746 84.5 1.58 [0.8-3.1]
Assets ownership (household)      
   - Quintile 1 (most poor) 191 (21.0) 15 193 77.7 1.10 [0.4-2.9]
   - Quintile 2 168 (19.0) 22 175 125.7 1.78 [0.7-4.5]
   - Quintile 3 189 (21.0) 13 189 68.8 0.92 [0.3-2.5]
   - Quintile 4 172 (19.0) 9 180 50.0 0.87 [0.3-2.3]
   - Quintile 5 (least poor) 175 (20.0) 13 178 73.0 1
Distance to nearest health facility      
   - ≤5 km 429 (48.0) 39 442 88.2 1.26 [0.8-2.0]
   - >5 Km 466 (52.0) 33 473 69.8 1
History of perinatal death      
   - Yes 88 (09.8) 9 90 100.0 1.52 [0.8-3.0]
   - No 654 (90.2) 63 671 65.6 1
Used bednet during pregnancy      
   - Yes 341 (38.1) 26 349 74.5 1
   - No 554 (61.9) 46 566 81.3 1.10 [0.7-1.8]
Antenatal care visits      
   - None 253 (28.3) 23 256 89.8 1.52 [0.7-3.1]
   - 1-2 481 (53.7) 39 492 79.3 1.33 [0.7-2.6]
   - >2 161 (18.0) 10 167 60.0 1
Season of birth      
   - Dry season (Nov-April) 431 (48.0) 47 440 106.8 2.02 [1.3-3.2]
   - Rainy season (May-Oct) 464 (52.0) 25 475 52.6 1
Place of birth      
   - Health facility 319 (36.0) 26 326 79.8 1.02 [0.6-1.6]
   - Home/TBA's place/other 576 (64.0) 46 589 78.1 1
Birth attendants      
   - Health personnel 335 (37.0) 26 342 76.0 1
   - TBA/Family/none 560 (63.0) 46 573 80.3 1.06 [0.7-1.7]
Had twins'birth      
   - Yes 20 (2.0) 8 40 200.0 2.78 [1.4-5.3]
   - No 875 (98.0) 64 875 73.1 1
  1. Univariable analyses adjusted for clustering to account for the design of the PROMISE-EBF Trial
  2. Restricted to multiparous mothers