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Table 3 The specific characteristics of the setting regarding to childbirth practice

From: Facilitators and barriers in the humanization of childbirth practice in Japan

Characteristic Presence of characteristic: + Absence of characteristic:- 4thlevel Hospital (1) 4th level Hospital (2) 3nd level Hospital (1) 3nd level Hospital (2) 3th Level Hospital (3) 2nd level Hospital (1) 2nd level Hospital (2) 2nd level Hospital (2) Birthing home
Average childbirth per year 800 1500 500 550 500 1100 1200 1200 120
Transferring rate to hospital NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 3-4%
Medical Interventions          
C-section rate 27% 30-35% < 15% < 15% 40% < 15% < 15% < 15% NA
Epidural analgesia - 40-50% rare rare < 10% - - - -
Routine episiotomy for first pregnancy - - - - 70% - - - -
Continues Electronic Foetal Monitoring (EFM) high risk high risk - - high-risk - - - -
Routine IV line in normal pregnancy - - - - - - - - -
Physical Environment          
LDR room - + + + + + + + +
Tatami style room - - + + + + + + +
Joining room for family + + + + + + + + +
Private Post partum rooms + + + + + + + + +
Shared postpartum rooms + + + + + + + + -
Common labour + - - - - - - - -
Main care Providers          
Nurse-Midwife + + + + + + + + +
Obstetric& Gynaecologic + + + + + + + + -
Nurse - - - - - - - - -
Continuity of care          
Care is provided by the same care provider during prenatal - - - - - - - - +
Natural methods of relieving pain          
Birth pool - - + - - + + + +
Aromatherapy + + + + + + + + +
Massage + + + + + + + + +
Moxa therapy - - - - - - - - +
Emotional support by companion + + + + + + + + +
Emotional support by midwife companion + + + + + + + + +
Changing position and saddle seat + + + + + + + + +
Listen to music + + + + + + + + +
Breathing techniques + + + + + + + + +
Rules/Regulation          
Eating during labour + + + + + + + + +
Conditional companion during labour and delivery + + + + + + + + +
Companion in C-section - - - - - - - - NA
Cutting umbilical cord by father - - - - - - + + +
Having kid's companion + - - - - + + + +
Companion in post -partum period - - - - - - + + +
Staying baby in mother's room in first 24 h after delivery + - + + + + + + +
Breastfeeding within first hours of life + + + + + + + + +
Rooming-in + + + + + + + + +
Average duration of hospitalization after C-section 9 days 9 days 9 9 days 9 days 9 days 4 days 4 days NA
Average of hospitalization after normal vaginal delivery 6 days 6 days 6 6 days 5 days 7 days 2 days 2 days 5 days
Free style position in delivery - - + + + + + + +