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Table 1 Labour and childbirth analgesic options included in the decision aid and the evidence base

From: Assisting informed decision making for labour analgesia: a randomised controlled trial of a decision aid for labour analgesia versus a pamphlet

Analgesic option Evidence base
   Support person    Systematic review[32]
   Being upright during labour    Three systematic reviews [3335]
   Touch and massage    Two systematic reviews, one based on observational data[36]
   Bath    Systematic review[37]
   Aromatherapy    Systematic review[37]
   Acupuncture    Systematic review[37]
   Hypnosis    Systematic review[37]
   Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS)    Systematic review[38]
   Nitrous oxide    Systematic review[39] and population based data[40]
   Opioid analgesia    Two systematic reviews[41, 42] and population based data[40]
   Epidural analgesia    Two systematic review[43, 44] and observational research [45].