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Table 2 Management of labour, mode of delivery and perineal injury

From: Achieving sustainable quality in maternity services – using audit of incontinence and dyspareunia to identify shortfalls in meeting standards

  Overall North Staffs Burton
  (n = 1036) (n = 662) (n = 374)
Length of Labour / Pushing Pushing n = 647 Pushing n = 318 Pushing n = 329
  Labour n = 690 Labour n = 333 Labour n = 357
Median length of labour (mins) 450 (IQR 387) 360 (IQR 279) 590 (IQR 432)
Median length of pushing (mins) 46 (IQR 67) 46 (IQR 67) 46 (IQR 55.5)
Type of Pushing n = 491 n = 317 n = 174
Active 242 (49%) 137 (43%) 105 (60%)
Physiological 146 (30%) 132 (42%) 14 (8%)
Both 103 (21%) 48 (15%) 55 (32%)
Not Recorded 545 345 200
Epidurals n = 1031 (99%) n = 662 (100%) n = 369 (99%)
Yes 402 (39%) 217 (33%) 185(50%)
No 629 (61%) 445 (67%) 184(50%)
Not Recorded 5 - 5
Instrumental Deliveries n = 198 (19%) n = 108 (16%) n = 90 (24%)
Ventouse 151 (76%) 86 (80%) 65 (72%)
Forceps 47 (24%) 22 (20%) 25 (28%)
Caesarean Sections n = 231 (22%) n = 142 (21%) n = 89 (24%)
Emergency Sections 173 (75%) 95 (67%) 78 (88%)
Elective Sections 58 (25%) 47 (33%) 11 (12%)
Episiotomies & Tears n = 606 (58%) n = 395 (60%) n = 211 (56%)
Episiotomy 401 (66%) 254 (64%) 147 (70%)
Tear 193 (32%) 132 (33%) 61 (29%)
Both Episiotomy & Tear 12 (2%) 9 (2%) 3 (1%)
Degrees of Tear 205 (20%) 141 (21%) 64 (17%)
1° Tears 37 (21%) 26 (23%) 11(18%)
2° Tears 133 (76%) 84 (74%) 49 (80%)
3° Tears 4 (2%) 3 (3%) 1 (2%)
Degree Not Recorded 31 28 3
  1. *In addition 2 women had assisted vaginal breech deliveries.