From the results, we found that the maternal basic characters, maternal complications and neonatal complications except NICU were similar in sGDM group and DM group. This suggests that GDM patients with fasting glucose ≥ 7 mmol/L or OGTT 2 h ≥ 11.1 mmol/L might have diabetes before pregnancy. The prognoses of the two groups were worse than that of the mGDM group, especially the sGDM group. This might result from the later diagnosis time of sGDM patients, so far as to ketoacidosis appearing. Most patients in sGDM group were diagnosed in the 33rd week of pregnancy who might have suffered glycemic abnormality for a long period without treatment and have developed some maternal complications in an early phase, let alone the influence of combination with poor treatments. In this study, for all patients together, the average antenatal random glycemia of patients adding insulin was 7.38 ± 3.42 mmol/L which did not satisfy the control standards and was much higher than that of patients only using diet. This indicates that the added dose of insulin might be not enough to control the blood sugar. Many Chinese women are reluctant to use medicine during pregnancy because of the misconceptions that the medicines used might harm their babies. Even if some patients in DM group had received insulin therapy before pregnancy, they refused insulin injection after they became pregnant. The bad relationship between doctors and patients in China might also have contributed to the inadequate usage of insulin. Some pregnant women didn’t regularly come to do prenatal examinations or monitor blood glucose at home, even doubted what doctors said. Moreover, compliance to the usage of insulin in sGDM group was worse than those patients with diabetes for many years for that they had never come into contact with insulin injection before, so their treatment efficiency was even worse than that in DM group. Some random control trials have demonstrated that for gestational diabetes, a comprehensive management of dietary and necessary insulin could significantly improve the perinatal outcomes [28, 29]. Therefore, we should emphasize health education and help those women change the misunderstanding of medicine use in pregnancy. Moreover, we should pay more attention to the patients with sGDM such as adding frequency of antenatal care, closely monitoring in clinical work and the most important one is early diagnosis.
In addition, more patients in DM and sGDM groups required insulin supplement. The average blood glucose levels of OGTT of those adding insulin could be used as references for clinicians, with the aim of managing the glycemia in an earlier stage and avoiding severe maternal and neonatal complications.
One study has suggested that, in GDM, increased severity of insulin resistance and related features of the “metabolic syndrome” are precursors to the development of preeclampsia . Maternal obesity could aggravate the complications . In our study, maternal weight before delivery was closely positively related to PIH and preeclampsia in accordance with the studies above. What’s more, through the ROC analysis, the value of OGTT 0 h could predict the occurrences of PIH and preterm birth; the values of OGTT 0 h and OGTT 2 h could both predict the occurrence of stillbirth. Therefore, we should pay more emphasis on those with OGTT 0 h ≥ 5.76 mmol/L or OGTT 2 h ≥ 11.7 mmol/L, at the same time actively control the blood glucose under the target (fasting < 5.3 mmol/L, postprandial 2 h < 6.7 mmol/L) and rigorously monitor blood pressure, maternal weight, fetal heart rate and fetal movement so as to reduce severe maternal and neonatal complications.
Glycemic level in the late pregnancy is directly related to the baby’s safety. Even in women with a mild degree of GDM, proper management of both mother and fetus could reduce the number of unexplained stillbirths . Our study also showed that women with poor perinatal blood sugar easily suffered stillbirth and premature birth. Premature birth might lead to neonatal long term complications which might bring economic burden to both family and society. Therefore, active control of antenatal blood glucose level is an effective method to prevent neonatal complications.
However, there were some limitations in our research. It was a single center study and the sample size was small, so the sensitivity and specificity of results were not so satisfactory. With the standardization of the diagnosis and treatment of GDM, we will get more accurate and particular data in China.